What's new in Angular 17.2?

Angular 17.2.0 is here!

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This is a minor release with some nice features: let’s dive in!

Queries as signals

A new developer preview feature has been added to allow the use of queries as signals. viewChild(), viewChildren(), contentChild(), and contentChildren() functions have been added in @angular/core and return signals.

Let’s go through a few examples.

You can use viewChild to query the template:

// <canvas #chart></canvas>
canvas = viewChild<ElementRef<HTMLCanvasElement>>('chart');
// ^? Signal<ElementRef<HTMLCanvasElement> | undefined>

// <form></form> with FormsModule
form = viewChild(NgForm);
// ^? Signal<NgForm | undefined>

As you can see, the return type is a Signal containing the queried ElementRef<HTMLElement> or undefined, or the queried component/directive or undefined.

You can specify that the queried element is required to get rid of undefined:

canvas = viewChild.required<ElementRef<HTMLCanvasElement>>('chart');
// ^? Signal<ElementRef<HTMLCanvasElement>>

If the element is not found, you’ll have a runtime error:

'NG0951: Child query result is required but no value is available.
Find more at https://angular.io/errors/NG0951'

This error can also happen if you try to access the query result too soon, for example in the constructor of the component. You can access the query result in the ngAfterViewInit/ngAfterViewChecked lifecycle hooks, or in the afterNextRender/afterRender functions.

You can also use viewChildren to query multiple elements. In that case, you get a Signal containing a readonly array of elements, or an empty array if no element is found (we no longer need QueryList \o/): chart.component.ts

canvases = viewChildren<ElementRef<HTMLCanvasElement>>('chart');
// ^? Signal<ReadonlyArray<ElementRef<HTMLCanvasElement>>>

The functions accept the same option as @ViewChild and @ViewChildren, so you can specify the read option to query a directive or provider on an element.

As you can imagine, the same is possible for contentChild and contentChildren.

For example, if we want to build a TabsComponent that can be used like this:

  <ns-tab title="Races" />
  <ns-tab title="About" />

We can build a TabDirective to represent a tab:

  selector: 'ns-tab',
  standalone: true
export class TabDirective {
  title = input.required<string>();

then build the TabsComponent with contentChildren to query the directives:

  selector: 'ns-tabs',
  template: `
    <ul class="nav nav-tabs">
      @for (tab of tabs(); track tab) {
        <li class="nav-item">
          <a class="nav-link">{{ tab.title() }}</a>
  standalone: true
export class TabsComponent {
  tabs = contentChildren(TabDirective);
  // ^? Signal<ReadonlyArray<TabDirective>>

As for the @ViewChild/@ViewChildren decorators, we can specify the descendants option to query the tab directives that are not direct children of TabsComponent:

tabs = contentChildren(TabDirective, { descendants: true });
// ^? Signal<ReadonlyArray<TabDirective>>
    <ns-tab title="Races" />
    <ns-tab title="About" />

As viewChild, contentChild can be required.

model signal

Signals also allow a fresh take on existing patterns. As you probably know, Angular allows a “banana in a box” syntax for two-way binding. This is mostly used with ngModel to bind a form control to a component property:

<input name="login" [(ngModel)]="user.login" />

Under the hood, this is because the ngModel directive has a ngModel input and a ngModelChange output.

So the banana in a box syntax is just syntactic sugar for the following:

<input name="login" [ngModel]="user.login" (ngModelChange)="user.login = $event" />

The syntax is, in fact, general and can be used with any component or directive that has an input named something and an output named somethingChange.

You can leverage this in your own components and directives, for example, to build a pagination component:

@Input({ required: true }) collectionSize!: number;
@Input({ required: true }) pageSize!: number;

@Input({ required: true }) page!: number;
@Output() pageChange = new EventEmitter<number>();

pages: Array<number> = [];

ngOnChanges(): void {
  this.pages = this.computePages();

goToPage(page: number) {

private computePages() {
  return Array.from({ length: Math.ceil(this.collectionSize / this.pageSize) }, (_, i) => i + 1);

The component receives the collection, the page size, and the current page as inputs, and emits the new page when the user clicks on a button.

Every time an input changes, the component recomputes the buttons to display. The template uses a for loop to display the buttons:

@for (pageNumber of pages; track pageNumber) {
  <button [class.active]="page === pageNumber" (click)="goToPage(pageNumber)">
    {{ pageNumber }}

The component can then be used like:

<ns-pagination [(page)]="page" [collectionSize]="collectionSize" [pageSize]="pageSize"></ns-pagination>

Note that page can be a number or a signal of a number, the framework will handle it correctly.

The pagination component can be rewritten using signals, and the brand new model() function:

collectionSize = input.required<number>();
pageSize = input.required<number>();
pages = computed(() => this.computePages());

page = model.required<number>();
// ^? ModelSignal<number>;
goToPage(page: number) {

private computePages() {
  return Array.from({ length: Math.ceil(this.collectionSize() / this.pageSize()) }, (_, i) => i + 1);

As you can see, a model() function is used to define the input/output pair, and the output emission is done using the set() method of the signal.

A model can be required, or can have a default value, or can be aliased, as it is the case for inputs. It can’t be transformed though. If you use an alias, the output will be aliased as well.

If you try to access the value of the model before it has been set, for example in the constructor of the component, then you’ll have a runtime error:

'NG0952: Model is required but no value is available yet.
Find more at https://angular.io/errors/NG0952'

Defer testing

The default behavior of the TestBed for testing components using @defer blocks has changed from Manual to Playthrough.

Check out our blog post about defer for more details.


The NgOptimizedImage directive (check out our blog post about it) can now automatically display a placeholder while the image is loading, if the provider supports automatic image resizing.

This can be enabled by adding a placeholder attribute to the directive:

<img ngSrc="logo.jpg" placeholder />

The placeholder is 30px by 30px by default, but you can customize it. It is displayed slightly blurred to give a hint to the user that the image is loading. The blur effect can be disabled with [placeholderConfig]="{ blur: false }.

Another new feature is the ability to use Netlify as a provider, joining the existing Cloudflare, Cloudinary, ImageKit, and Imgix providers.

Angular CLI

define support

The CLI now supports a new option named define in the build and serve targets. It is similar to what the esbuild plugin of the same name does: you can define constants that will be replaced with the specified value in TS and JS code, including in libraries.

You can for example define a BASE_URL that will be replaced with the value of https://api.example.com:

"build": {
  "builder": "@angular-devkit/build-angular:browser",
  "options": {
    "define": {
      "BASE_URL": "'https://api.example.com'"

You can then use it in your code:

return this.http.get(`${BASE_URL}/users`);

TypeScript needs to know that this constant exists (as you don’t import it), so you need to declare it in a d.ts file:

declare const BASE_URL: string;

This can be an alternative to the environment files, and it can be even more powerful as the constant is also replaced in libraries.

Bun support

You can now use Bun as a package manager for your Angular CLI projects, in addition to npm, yarn, pnpm and cnpm. It will be automatically detected, or can be forced with --package-manager=bun when generating a new project.

clearScreen option

A new option is now supported in the application builder to clear the screen before rebuilding the application.

"build": {
  "builder": "@angular-devkit/build-angular:application",
  "options": {
    "clearScreen": true

You then only see the output of the current build, and not from the previous one.

Abbreviated build targets

The angular.json file now supports abbreviated build targets. For example, you currently have something like this in your project:

"serve": {
  "builder": "@angular-devkit/build-angular:dev-server",
  "configurations": {
    "development": {
      "buildTarget": "app:build:development"

This means that ng serve uses the app:build:development target to build the application.

This can now be abbreviated to:

"serve": {
  "builder": "@angular-devkit/build-angular:dev-server",
  "configurations": {
    "development": {
      "buildTarget": "::development"

PostCSS support

The application builder now supports PostCSS, a tool for transforming CSS with JavaScript plugins. You just have to add a postcss.config.json or .postcssrc.json file to your project and the CLI will pick it up.

JSON build logs

The CLI now supports a new option to output the build logs in JSON format. This can be useful to integrate the build logs in other tools.



That’s all for this release, stay tuned!

All our materials (ebook, online training and training) are up-to-date with these changes if you want to learn more!

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